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Nobel prize physiology and medicine list

(source Wikipedia, marked the physiological and neurophysiological subjects)

1901 – Emil von Behring, Germany, for making a serum to stop people getting the disease diphtheria

1902 – Ronald Ross, United Kingdom, for work on malaria

1903 – Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark, for treating Lupus vulgaris (tuberculosis of the skin), with light radiation

1904 – Ivan Pavlov, Russia, for his work on the way digestion works

1905 – Robert Koch, Germany, for studying tuberculosis

1906 – Camillo Golgi, Italy and Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spain for their work on the parts of the nervous system

1907 – Alphonse Laveran, France, for his work on the way protozoa can cause disease

1908 – Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russia, and Paul Ehrlich, Germany, for finding out how immunity fights disease

1909 – Emil Theodor Kocher, Switzerland, for his work on the thyroid gland

1910 – Albrecht Kossel, Germany, for his work on proteins and nucleic substances

1911 – Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden, for his work on light refraction and the eye

1912 – Alexis Carrel, France, for his work on joining blood vessels and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs

1913 – Charles Robert Richet, France, for his work on anaphylaxis

1914 – Robert Bárány, Austria, for his work on the ear and balance

1915 – Not awarded

1916 – Not awarded

1917 – Not awarded

1918 – Not awarded

1919 – Jules Bordet, Belgium, for his discoveries about immunity

1920 – August Krogh, Denmark, for his discoveries about capillaries

1921 – Not awarded

1922 – Archibald Vivian Hill, United Kingdom, for finding out how muscles make heat

1922 – Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Germany, for finding out how oxygen makes chemical changes in lactic acid in muscles

1923 – Frederick Grant Banting, Canada and John Macleod, Canada, for the discovery of insulin

1924 – Willem Einthoven, The Netherlands, for inventing the electrocardiogram

1925 – Not awarded

1926 – Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Denmark, for his discovery that an infection could lead to cancer

1927 – Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria, for his discovery that malaria inoculation helps the treatment of paralysis

1928 – Charles Jules Henri Nicolle, France, for his work on typhus

1929 – Christiaan Eijkman, The Netherlands, for finding out how to use a vitamin to stop nerve pain

1929 – Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the vitamins that help growth

1930 – Karl Landsteiner, Austria, for discovery of human blood types

1931 – Otto Heinrich Warburg, Germany, for his discovery of the respiratory enzyme

1932 – Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, United Kingdom, and Edgar Douglas Adrian, United Kingdom, for discoveries about neurons (nerve cells)

1933 – Thomas Hunt Morgan, United States, for his work on chromosomes and heredity

1934 – George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, and William Parry Murphy, United States, for their work on how eating liver could cure anaemia

1935 – Hans Spemann, Germany, for finding the organizer effect in embryonic development

1936 – Sir Henry Hallett Dale, United Kingdom, and Otto Loewi, Austria for their discoveries about neurotransmitters and nerve impulses

1937 – Albert Szent-Györgyi, Hungary, for his discoveries about cells, vitamin C and chemical changes of fumaric acid

1938 – Corneille Heymans, Belgium, for work on the paranasal sinus and aortic mechanisms in the control of breathing

1939 – Gerhard Domagk, Germany, for finding the antibacterial effects of prontosil

1940 – Not awarded

1941 – Not awarded

1942 – Not awarded

1943 – Henrik Carl Peter Dam, Denmark, for his discovery of vitamin K

1943 – Edward Adelbert Doisy, United States, for work on vitamin K

1944 – Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Gasser, United States, for their discoveries about single nerve fibres

1945 – Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, United Kingdom and Howard Walter Florey, Australia, for the discovery of penicillin and making it into an antibiotic to cure infectious diseases

1946 – Hermann Joseph Muller, United States, for the discovery of mutations caused by X-ray irradiation

1947 – Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz, United States, for their work on catalytic conversion of glycogen

1947 – Bernardo Alberto Houssay, Argentina, for finding out how the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe works in the metabolism of sugar

1948 – Paul Hermann Müller, Switzerland, for his work on DDT as a poison against several insects

1949 – Walter Rudolf Hess, Switzerland, for his discovery of the way the brain controls the internal organs

1949 – António Egas Moniz, Portugal, for using leucotomy (brain surgery) to cure some mental illnesses

1950 – Philip French, Edward Kendall, United States, and Tadeusz Reichstein, Switzerland, for the hormones of the adrenal cortex

1951 – Max Theiler, Union of South Africa, for his discoveries about yellow fever

1952 – Selman Waksman, United States, for discovering streptomycin, the first antibiotic to work against tuberculosis

1953 – Hans Krebs, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the citric acid cycle

1953 – Fritz Lipmann, United States, for his discovery of co-enzyme A

1954 – John Enders, Frederick Robbins, and Thomas Weller, United States, for discovering the poliomyelitis virus and growing it in a laboratory

1955 – Hugo Theorell, Sweden, for his discoveries about enzymes changing with oxygen

1956 – André Cournand, Dickinson Richards, United States, and Werner Forssmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for their discoveries about heart catheterization and changes in the circulatory system

1957 – Daniel Bovet, Italy for his work on antihistamine and what they do to parts of the body

1958 – George Beadle and Edward Tatum, United States, for finding out how genes work

1958 – Joshua Lederberg, United States, for finding out how genetic recombination works in bacteria (transduction (genetics))

1959 – Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa, United States, for their discovery of how living things make ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

1960 – Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia, and Sir Peter Medawar, United Kingdom, for their discovery of acquired immune tolerance

1961 – Georg von Békésy, United States, for his discoveries about the cochlea (inner ear)

1962 – Francis Crick, United Kingdom, James D. Watson, United States, and Maurice Wilkins, New Zealand, for finding the structure of nucleic acids and its importance in coding information in living things

1963 – Sir John Eccles, Australia, Alan Hodgkin, United Kingdom, and Andrew Huxley, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about nerve cell membrane

1964 – Konrad Bloch, United States, and Feodor Lynen, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding out how cholesterol and fatty acid work in the body

1965 – François Jacob, André Lwoff, and Jacques Monod, France, for finding out how genes control viruses

1966 – Peyton Rous, United States, for his discovery that viruses can cause tumours

1966 – Charles Brenton Huggins, United States, for using hormonal treatment of prostate cancer

1967 – Ragnar Granit, Sweden, Haldan Keffer Hartline, and George Wald, United States, for their discoveries about how the eye works

1968 – Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, and Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States, for their understanding of the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis

1969 – Max Delbrück, Alfred Hershey, and Salvador Luria, United States, for finding how viruses reproduce

1970 – Julius Axelrod, Ulf von Euler, Sweden, and Sir Bernard Katz, United Kingdom, for finding out about transmittors in the nerve terminals and how they work

1971 – Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States, for his discoveries about hormones

1972 – Gerald M. Edelman, United States, and Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom, for finding out the chemical structure of antibodies

1973 – Karl von Frisch, Federal Republic of Germany, Konrad Lorenz, Austria, and Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about individual and social behaviour patterns

1974 – Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, Belgium, and George E. Palade, United States, for their discoveries about cells

1975 – David Baltimore, Howard Temin, and Renato Dulbecco, United States, for finding what happens when tumour causing viruses infect normal cells

1976 – Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States, for their discoveries about the beginnings and spreading of infectious diseases

1977 – Roger Guillemin, Andrew W. Schally, United States, for their discoveries about how the brain makes peptide hormone

1977 – Rosalyn Yalow, United States, for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones

1978 – Werner Arber, Switzerland, Daniel Nathans, United States, and Hamilton O. Smith, United States for finding restriction enzymes and their use in molecular genetics

1979 – Allan M. Cormack, United States, and Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom, for the development of computer assisted tomography

1980 – Baruj Benacerraf, United States, Jean Dausset, France, and George D. Snell, United States, for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that control immunological reactions

1981 – Roger Sperry, United States, for finding out the role of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain

1981 – David Hubel, United States, and Torsten Wiesel, Sweden, for their discoveries about information processing in the visual system

1982 – Sune Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, Sweden, and John R. Vane, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about prostaglandins

1983 – Barbara McClintock, United States, for her discovery of mobile genetic elements

1984 – Niels K. Jerne, Denmark, Georges Köhler, Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, César Milstein, Argentina and the United Kingdom, for theories about the development and control of the immune system and the discovery of monoclonal antibodies are made

1985 – Michael S. Brown, and Joseph L. Goldstein, United States, for finding out how cholesterol is controlled

1986 – Stanley Cohen, United States, and Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and the United States, for their discoveries of growth factors

1987 – Susumu Tonegawa, Japan, for his discovery how the genes make different antibodies

1988 – Sir James Black United Kingdom, Gertrude B. Elion, and George H. Hitchings, United States, for finding important rules for drug treatment

1989 – J. Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus, United States, found how disturbing a large family of genes that control the normal growth and division of cells, can cause normal cells to change into cancer cells

1990 – Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas, United States, for their discoveries about organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of disease

1991 – Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding what single ion channels do in cells

1992 – Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and the United States, and Edwin G. Krebs, United States, for finding reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological control mechanism

1993 – Richard Roberts, United Kingdom, and Phillip Sharp, United States, for their discoveries of split genes

1994 – Alfred G. Gilman, and Martin Rodbell, United States, for finding G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells

1995 – Edward B. Lewis, United States, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Federal Republic of Germany, and Eric F. Wieschaus, United States, for finding how embryonic development is changed by genes

1996 – Peter C. Doherty, Australia, and Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland, for finding how the immune system knows which cells are virus-infected

1997 – Stanley B. Prusiner, United States, for his discovery of prions, proteins that make people sick

1998 – Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad, United States, for finding how nitric oxide works as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system

1999 – Günter Blobel, United States, for the discovery that proteins have built-in signals that control their transport and localization in the cell

2000 – Arvid Carlsson, Sweden, Paul Greengard, United States, and Eric Kandel, United States, for their discoveries about signal transduction in the nervous system

2001 – Leland Hartwell, United States, Tim Hunt, United Kingdom, and Sir Paul Nurse, United Kingdom, for finding the main controls in the cell cycle

2002 – Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom, H. Robert Horvitz, United States, and Sir John Sulston, United Kingdom, for their finding the genetic controls of organ development and programmed cell death

2003 – Paul Lauterbur, United States, and Sir Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom, for inventing magnetic resonance imaging

2004 – Richard Axel and Linda Buck, United States, for finding small receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, (how we smell things)

2005 – Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, Australia, for finding the bacterium Helicobacter pylori that causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease

2006 – Andrew Fire and Craig Mello, United States, for finding how RNA interference can switch genes on or off

2007 – Mario Capecchi, United States, Sir Martin Evans, United Kingdom, Oliver Smithies, United States, for finding a way to switch off genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. This leads to genetically changed mice

2008 – Harald zur Hausen, Germany, for finding the human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, France, for finding the human immunodeficiency virus

2009 – Elizabeth Blackburn, Australia, Carol Greider, US, and Jack Szostak, England, for their work on chromosomes

2010 – Robert Edwards, U.K., for the development of in vitro fertilization

2011 – Bruce Beutler, U.S.A., Jules Hoffmann, France, for their discoveries about how innate immunity is activated

Ralph Steinman, Canada/U.S.A. for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity (awarded posthumously)

2012 – John Gurdon, U.K., and Shinya Yamanaka, Japan, for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become stem cells

2013 – James Rothman, Randy Schekman, both US, and Thomas G. Sudhof, Germany for "discovering the molecular basis of neutrotransmitters release"

2014 – John O'Keefe U.K./U.S., May-Britt Moser & Edvard Moser Norway for "discovering the cells that make a positing system in the brain" (the hippocampus as a mental map for spatial memory)

2015 – William C. Campbell (1/4)/ Satoshi Ōmura (1/4) / Tu Youyou (1/2) for therapy against (respectively) roundworm parasites, and malaria

2016 – Yoshinori Ohsumi, Japan, for autophagy

2017 – Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young & Jeffrey C. Hall, all U.S., for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm

2018 – James P. Allison, U.S, Tasuku Honjo, Japan, for "discovery of cancer therapy by inhibitation of negative immune regulation"

2019 – William Kaelin Jr., U.S., Peter J. Ratcliffe, U.K., Gregg L. Semenza, U.S. for "their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

2020 – Harvey J. Alter, U.S, Michael Houghton, U.K, & Charles M. Rice, U.S. for "the discovery of Hepatitis C virus"

2021 – David Julius, U.S. and Ardem Patapoutian, U.S. for "discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch"



Some interesting Nobel Prizes in Chemistry



1997 – Jens C. Skou, Denmark, for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase

2003 – Peter C. Agre U.S., discovery of the aquaporin water channels